The Highways Agency has submitted plans to the Department for Transport to allow companies that operate at service stations to advertise their food stores, shops and hotels on motorways.
MPs warned the move could turn UK motorways into US-style freeways dominated by huge billboards that could distract drivers.
Critics claimed the proposal contradicted previous efforts by the Highways Agency to remove unauthorised posters in fields next to motorways.
The Highways Agency said no decisions had been taken but confirmed MPS were considering its proposal to issue a consultation document.
The Campaign to Protect Rural England said: "The English countryside has been kept largely free of garish advertising, thanks to the regime of control. This achievement is now in serious danger."