The deal expands Vodafone's role as mobile partner to total communications partner. This covers mobile and broadband networks, content and communications services and associated devices.
The previous five-year contract was due to finish at the end of the 2011 season.
Ron Dennis, executive chairman of McLaren Group and McLaren Automotive, said: "The success that Vodafone McLaren Mercedes has enjoyed since our two companies' partnership began in 2007 has been prodigious."
Vodafone has sponsored the McLaren team, which consists of British drivers Jenson Button and Lewis Hamilton, since 2007, and was until last year the sponsor of the England cricket team.