Burkitt, who gave Gould his first job in advertising in 1975 at Wasey Campbell-Ewald, left his agency last October. He dropped plans to set up a consultancy when Gould offered him the task of developing the commercial side of his polling and strategy business.
Burkitt said: "I have always admired Philip's political strategy, and I am excited by the possibilities of applying his experience of top-level strategy to more businesses."
Philip Gould Associates, which has worked for Labour since 1985, has also acted as strategic advisor to a list of blue-chip clients including BP, Coca-Cola and the European Commission.
Gould said: "As corporations become more powerful, they also become more vulnerable. Our role is to work with chief executives to develop a long-term strategy that enhances the company's reputation with all its stakeholders."
He added: "Philip Gould Associates has now grown to a point where I need a partner to help me run the business. Hugh ran his own agency for many years and has a deep understanding of corporate strategy and communications."