It has been a year of change for BMW, which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2016. Ferraiolo, who took up the role in August 2015, launched a media review in May, eventually handing its £20m UK account to MEC six months later. Three months before last year’s Brexit referendum, he nailed his colours to the mast at a Chartered Institute of Marketing event, saying: "For us, open borders are very important. We enjoy having free trade." He will now no doubt be watching to see how Brexit plays out.